In Europe and Southeast Asia, many public toilets require payment to enter. And if they aren’t automated, there might be a toilet minder person that you need to tip (or pay to get toilet paper).
Sometimes you will encounter toilet situations where there is no toilet at all, and in cases like this, a scarf or a sarong can be used as a privacy shield. You can also substitute a Turkish towel for this purpose.
Because when there are no toilets, or when toilets aren’t well-kept, there often isn’t a sink or soap for miles around. Besides your hands, you can also use sanitizer or wet wipes to wipe down a questionable toilet seat before using.
Take a bathroom break when a toilet shows itself… because you don’t know when you’ll get to one next.
All loose items should be removed or secured before getting near one, especially phones, money, and sunglasses.
If you can’t speak it well, save a photo on your phone or have a flashcard that you can show people.